Rhetoric and Composition The concept of a discourse community is vital to academic writers across nearly all disciplines, for the academic writer's purpose is to influence a discourse community to think differently. At the same time the discourse community does not expect to see any writing that appears too foreign.
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Definition[ edit ] Guidelines for assigning authorship vary between institutions and disciplines. They may be formally defined or simply cultural custom.
Incorrect application of authorship rules occasionally leads to charges of academic misconduct and sanctions for the violator. A survey of a large sample of researchers who had received funding from the U. In other fields only limited or no empirical data is available. Authorship in the natural sciences[ edit ] The natural sciences have no universal standard for authorship, but some major multi-disciplinary journals and institutions have established guidelines for work that they publish.
The journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PNAS has an editorial policy that specifies "authorship should be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the work" and furthermore, "authors are strongly encouraged to indicate their specific contributions" as a footnote.
The American Chemical Society further specifies that authors are those who also "share responsibility and accountability for the results"  [ not in citation given ] and the U. National Academies specify "an author who is willing to take credit for a paper must also bear responsibility for its contents.
Thus, unless a footnote or the text of the paper explicitly assigns responsibility for different parts of the paper to different authors, the authors whose names appear on a paper must share responsibility for all writing and publishing for academic authors it.
This usage is described in the "Information Statements on the Culture of Research and Scholarship in Mathematics" section of the American Mathematical Society website,  specifically the statement: Joint Research and Its Publication.
In other branches of knowledge such as economics, business, finance or particle physicsit is also usual to sort the authors alphabetically.
According to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journalsdesignation as an author must satisfy four conditions. The author must have: Contributed substantially to the conception and design of the study, the acquisition of data, or the analysis and interpretation Drafted or provided critical revision of the article Provided final approval of the version to publish Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved Acquisition of funding, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.
Many authors - especially those in the middle of the byline - do not fulfill these authorship criteria. The APA acknowledge that authorship is not limited to the writing of manuscripts, but must include those who have made substantial contributions to a study such as "formulating the problem or hypothesis, structuring the experimental design, organizing and conducting the statistical analysis, interpreting the results, or writing a major portion of the paper".
Like medicine, the APA considers institutional position, such as Department Chair, insufficient for attributing authorship.
Authorship in the humanities[ edit ] Neither the Modern Languages Association  nor the Chicago Manual of Style  define requirements for authorship because usually humanities works are single-authored and the author is responsible for the entire work.
Growing number of authors per paper[ edit ] From the late 17th century to the s, sole authorship was the norm, and the one-paper-one-author model worked well for distributing credit.
In particular types of research, including particle physics, genome sequencing and clinical trials, a paper's author list can run into the hundreds. Inthe Collider Detector at Fermilab CDF adopted a at that time highly unorthodox policy for assigning authorship. CDF maintains a standard author list.
All scientists and engineers working at CDF are added to the standard author list after one year of full-time work; names stay on the list until one year after the worker leaves CDF. Every publication coming out of CDF uses the entire standard author list, in alphabetical order.
Other big collaborations, including most particle physics experiments, followed this model. There were authors listed in an appendix and authorship was assigned to a group.
They strain guidelines that insist that each author's role be described and that each author is responsible for the validity of the whole work.
Such a system treats authorship more as credit for scientific service at the facility in general rather that as an identification of specific contributions. I have not been aware of any valid argument for more than three authors per paper, although I recognize that this may not be true for every field.
Traditionally, scientists were judged by the number of papers they published, and later by the impact of those papers.
The former is an estimate of quantity and the latter of quality. Both methods were adequate when single authorship was the norm, but vastly inflate individual contribution when papers are multi-authored. Furthermore, there is no cost to giving authorship to individuals who made only minor contribution and, actually, there is an incentive to do so.
Hence, the system rewards heavily multi-authored papers. This problem is openly acknowledged, and it could easily be "corrected" by dividing each paper and its citations by the number of authors. Honorary authorship[ edit ] Honorary authorship is sometimes granted to those who played no significant role in the work, for a variety of reasons.
Until recently, it was standard to list the head of a German department or institution as an author on a paper regardless of input.
However, it is plausible to expect that it is still widespread, because senior scientists leading large research groups can receive much of their reputation from a long publication list and thus have little motivation to give up honorary authorships.
A possible measure against honorary authorships has been implemented by some scientific journals, in particular by the Nature journals. They demand  that each new manuscript must include a statement of responsibility that specifies the contribution of every author.Amy Benson Brown, ACW Director of Academic Writing, is a writer and developmental editor, with over a decade of experience working directly with academic authors to help them reach their publication goals.
As Director of the Author Development Program at Emory University from —, she worked with faculty in disciplines that range from. Writing and Publishing for Academic Authors offers an insider's look at how to publish scholarly articles, book reviews, grants, magazine articles, .
In the Department of Writing, Literature and Publishing, the symbiotic relationship between writing, publishing, and the study of literature becomes a shared experience of finding one’s voice, refining one’s talent, and gaining the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in today’s evolving literary landscape.
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content for the same.
Also, the word publisher can refer to the . Academic writing tips from an author of + articles and books June 4, By TAA 1 Comment Veteran author Kenneth Henson has spent a career learning how to write grants, articles and books. We are pleased to announce winners of the third Bad Writing Contest, sponsored by the scholarly journal Philosophy and Literature and its internet discussion group, PHIL-LIT..
The Bad Writing Contest attempts to locate the ugliest, most stylistically awful passage found in a scholarly book or article published in the last few years.