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Corporation, on the other hand, refers to the group of companies or company that is allowed to act as a single legal entity. Comment 0 Step 2 of 7 a. Expenditure on research and development: It comes under the investment decision because it involves a huge amount of funds and the benefits from the same can be ascertained for long time period.
Any expenditure on research and development will help to provide a better position for the company in the market.
The managers have to do expenditures on setting the research and development. Hence, expenditure on research and development is an investment decision.
Comment 0 Step 3 of 7 b. It is considered as financial Asset because any instrument pertaining to which money is received is regarded as an asset and bank loan involves money which is repaid by the customer and any instrument pertaining to which money is received is regarded as an asset.
Moreover, it is taken by the bank and customer has to repay it to the bank. The cash received by the bank is used in the business. Hence, the bank loan is a financial asset.
Comment 0 Step 4 of 7 c. List on stock exchanges: Only public and private companies are allowed to list their stock on the exchanges according to the company law. The closely held corporation has limited numbers of shareholders.
The stocks of these companies are publicly traded but not on regular basis. But the stocks of public corporations are traded freely in the stock market.
Hence, the public corporations are listed on stock exchange. Comment 0 Step 5 of 7 d. Owners or shareholders of the corporation possess limited liability because shareholder possesses specific rights and they possess no liability to the corporation merely because of their interest in ownership.
They are only liable to pay up to their proportion in the company. In the partnership, the liability is not limited until and unless there is an agreed contract. Hence, most commonly the corporations have limited liability. Comment 0 Step 6 of 7 e. Responsible for bank relationship: A treasurer is responsible for the banking relationship because he is entitled to take care of operation of the bank and takes necessary step to increase the capital.
He is the one who interacts with the external environment whereas the controller makes financial statements and reports for the past performances.
Hence, the person who is responsible for bank relationships is the treasurer. Comment 0 Step 7 of 7 f. The cost resulting from conflicts of interest between managers and shareholders. This is the kind of internal cost.
The amount charged by lawyers and auditors are termed as the legal fees of the company. Hence, the agency cost is the cost that arises due to conflict of managers and shareholders.Fundamentals of Corporate Finance 11 th Edition.
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