Common standards Hashes Usually, when a hash is computed within bitcoin, it is computed twice. Example of double-SHA encoding of string "hello": If, when forming a row in the tree other than the root of the treeit would have an odd number of elements, the final double-hash is duplicated to ensure that the row has an even number of hashes. First form the bottom row of the tree with the ordered double-SHA hashes of the byte streams of the transactions in the block.
Different from project management Michael F. Hanford Published on May 14, Many enterprise IT organizations are tackling large, complex efforts that combine the delivery of software elements, new and changed business models, and overall changes to organizational structure and capabilities.
Typically these efforts involve several parallel projects, and managers are finding that "traditional" project management approaches fall short for such undertakings. Consequently, many IT professionals are turning to the substantial body of experience, and the smaller body of documentation, that supports the discipline of program management.
This discipline describes principles, strategies, and desirable results for managing large-scale efforts comprising parallel projects. This article considers five major aspects of program management: Defining roles and responsibilities, and providing oversight Management: Planning and administering both projects and the overall program Financial management: Implementation of specific fiscal practices and controls Infrastructure: The program office, technology, and other factors in the work environment supporting the program effort Planning: Activities that take place at multiple levels, with different goals.
The program plan is not a traditional plan We will take a Checkpoint iteration control structure look at each of these aspects, contrast them with similar aspects of project management, and outline for each the effort and results required to achieve success. Program governance Program governance is the aspect of the discipline that creates both the structure and practices to guide the program and provide senior-level leadership, oversight, and control.
Strategically, it encompasses the relationship between the oversight effort and the enterprise's overall business direction. It also encompasses all the decision-making roles and responsibilities involved in executing the program effort. Projects are typically governed by a simple management structure.
The project manager is responsible for day-to-day direction, a senior IT executive integrates technology with business interests, and a business sponsor is accountable for ensuring that the deliverables align with business strategy. Programs require a more complex governing structure because they involve fundamental business change and expenditures with significant bottom-line impact.
Figure 1 shows a sample governance structure for a complex program. View image at full size Figure 1: Sample program governance structure As we can see in Figure 1, unlike most projects, programs usually have a steering committee or other group that represents diverse interests and provides executive-level oversight.
As the program evolves, this governing body ensures that it continues to align with the enterprise's strategic direction and makes decisions that may eventually filter up to the board of directors.
Defining the role and decision-making powers of the steering committee is a significant part of the program governance effort and should be done with an eye toward facilitating rapid decisions and promoting a clear, unified direction. Figure 1 also illustrates a typical program management structure, which is more complex than that of a project.
Creating this structure involves defining specific roles with specific decision-making authority, and making clear to all who "owns" certain program functions.
Good governance is critical to program success. A poorly articulated management structure, overlapping roles and decision-making authority, and roles filled by the wrong people or not filled at all can prevent a program from achieving sustained momentum or bog it down with endless attempts to achieve consensus on every decision.
Program management What is program management? Is it really management at all? To answer these questions, let's begin by looking at an accepted definition of project management: Project management is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of company resources Within a program, these same responsibilities i.
For example, at the bottom of the management hierarchy, project managers are assigned to the various projects within the overall program. Each manager carries out the management responsibilities we described above.
This involves setting and reviewing objectives, coordinating activities across projects, and overseeing the integration and reuse of interim work products and results.
This person spends more time and effort on integration activities, negotiating changes in plans, and communicating than on the other project management activities we described e.
Leads high-level sessions for program plan and schedule development. Escalates decisions to executive sponsors as necessary. At the top of the program management hierarchy are the program sponsor s and the program steering committee.
Their major responsibility is to own and oversee the implementation of the program's underlying business and IT strategies, and to define the program's connection to the enterprise's overall business plan s and direction. Their management activities include providing and interpreting policy, creating an environment that fosters sustainable momentum for the program i.
These individuals receive periodic summary reports and briefings on funding consumption, resources and their utilization, and delivery of interim work products and results.This page describes the behavior of the reference lausannecongress2018.com Bitcoin protocol is specified by the behavior of the reference client, not by this page.
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