This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Although local spatiotemporal analysis can improve understanding of geographic variation of the HIV epidemic, its drivers, and the search for targeted interventions, it is limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Inverse distance weighting was used within ArcGIS Geographic Information Systems GIS software to generate continuous surfaces of HIV prevalence from point data,,and obtained from surveillance antenatal clinics.
U3, R, and U5 are indicated. The sequences of the two strains differ by 4. Sequencing analysis of the 11 recombinant clones revealed the crossover regions, which are denoted with dotted lines.
The cell clone that underwent recombination in a particular region is indicated above thedotted line. B, summary of recombinant cell clones. Five different classes of recombinants are illustrated; thenumbers to the right indicate how many of each different type occurred.
Both intra- and intermolecular primer strand transfers were observed during minus-strand DNA synthesis, whereas only intramolecular strand transfers occurred during plus-strand DNA synthesis.
Sequence analysis of the LTRs also revealed a high rate of homologous recombination, which if extrapolated to the entire genome, An analysis of the nature of aidshiv crossovers occur at a rate of almost three per genome per replication cycle during minus-strand DNA synthesis. In the nonrecombinant SNV proviruses, minus-strand DNA primer transfers were primarily intramolecular 95 out of 96 nonrecombinant proviruses 5.
Because of the apparently higher rate of HIV-1 recombination, the majority of the HIV-1 proviruses are presumably recombinant, maintaining the correlation between disordered minus-strand primer transfer and recombination.
Thus, the underlying significant difference between HIV-1 and SNV may lie with differences in their rates of recombination. In this study, two vectors similar in size to wild-type HIV-1 were used, the majority of sequences in the vectors were viral, and natural viral heterogeneity between the two HIV-1 strains was employed to analyze primer strand transfers.
These features differed from previous studies 5 However, it is most likely that the contrasting results are due to inherent differences between the two viruses. Three potential differences between the viruses are described below. Second, the HIV-1 accessory proteins, which have been shown to effect reverse transcriptionmight also influence the rate and nature of strand transfers.
Third, the structure of the HIV-1 core particle, which is clearly different from that of oncoretroviruses such as SNV 17might place less constraints upon HIV-1 strand transfers.
At this juncture, it is unclear which, if any, of these factors accounts for the differences. However, all three possible explanations provide direction for future studies of the underlying mechanism of retroviral strand transfers.
Also noteworthy is that there was about a fold difference in titer between the two vectors used in this study. The ratio was about 3: As demonstrated in previous reports, different HIV-1 viral isolates may exhibit different replication characteristics 18 Within this subpopulation, there are two groups: Thus, within the population for which selection was not linked to recombination, the relative number of inter- to intramolecular strand transfers was equivalent indicating that the experimental approach employed accurately reflects the nature of the primer strand transfers.
The high rate of recombination in the relatively small U3 region bp is consistent with the observation that the U3 of a high proportion of puror proviruses has originated from HIV-gptHXB2 35 of 86so they would have undergone at least one recombination in the 1.
This homologous recombination rate of HIV-1 is 5—fold higher than that reported for SNV 45suggesting that different retroviruses have different recombination rates. Three models have been proposed to explain retroviral recombination This study suggests that homologous recombination occurs most frequently during minus-strand DNA synthesis because the majority of the crossovers were found in both LTRs Figs.
However, because of the relatively small number of plus-strand recombinants observed, further analysis is required to more rigorously evaluate the relative contributions of minus-strand and plus-strand crossovers to HIV-1 recombination.
This is supported by in vitro experiments demonstrating that pause sites enhance strand transfers by HIV-1 RT However, one characteristic of HIV-1 RT-mediated strand transfers observed in vitro does not seem to occur during replication, namely the correlation between the very high frequency of mutation and strand transfers.
It was suggested that if this occurs in vivo, it would contribute significantly to HIV-1 genetic variation 27 In the 12 crossover segments identified, only one mutation was observed, yielding a G to A mutation Fig. Whether this mutation occurred during recombination or is a random error of RT is not known.
Thus, the DNA strand transfers in vivo did not seem to increase the rate of mutagenesis to the level predicted by the in vitroexperiments.
Similarly, in an in vivo assay, Zhang and Temin 29 reported that recombination is not an error-prone process for Moloney murine leukemia virus. This seems to contrast somewhat with a previous study using SNV, where it was concluded that one RNA is sufficient for retrovirus replication 5.
Although we do not exclude the possibility that one RNA molecule is sufficient for HIV-1 replication, these results indicate that it is the exception rather than the rule. The higher recombination rate intrinsic to HIV-1 would seem to be responsible for this difference.
Is genetic exchange between viral genomes of heterodimeric virions an important influence upon HIV-1 variation? This mechanism of genetic variation requires coinfection of the same cell by heterogeneous virions.Statistical analysis of the problem is seriously complicated by the ambiguous interpretation of the available data.
Mortality of HIV-positives does increase dramatically after diagnosis of AIDS. It is widely believed that this phenomenon is a direct consequence of .
verifiable insight into the nature, extent and comprehensiveness of HIV/AIDS related Stigma. With participants from Gauteng regions of Ekurhuleni, Sedibeng and West Rand, the study confirms that Stigma and Discrimination (S&D) still thrives, quantifying its magnitude, implications and impacts in the lives of the HIV infected.
Analysis of HIV- and AIDS-related education programmes suggests that initiatives that use this approach also tend to invoke notions of sexual rights in their work. The Brazilian initiative, for instance, dedicated considerable attention to sexual rights, and, albeit to a lesser degree, so did Today's Choices.
Although local spatiotemporal analysis can improve understanding of geographic variation of the HIV epidemic, its drivers, and the search for targeted interventions, it is limited in sub-Saharan Africa.
Despite recent declines, Malawi’s estimated % HIV prevalence () remained among the.
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Essay #2 Analysis of A Whisper of AIDS Words | 12 Pages. Analysis of A Whisper of AIDS speech On August 19, , during the Republican National Convention in Houston, Texas, Mary Fisher, a 44 year old HIV positive mother of two kids and a rich Republican, delivered a moving speech to bring awareness to the American public about the stigma and danger of HIV and AIDS in the 90’s.