Five-year-old Michael was entering kindergarten in the fall.
References This article explores the current policies and practices with regard to defining, identifying, and educating this population. Recommendations are included that would help ensure that students who are gifted and have learning disabilities receive the intervention needed to help them achieve their full potential.
When educators first began describing children who showed evidence of having a learning disability LD yet also appeared to be gifted, many viewed this as contradictory. How could a child be considered gifted who has serious enough learning problems to be characterized as having a learning disability?
Ina colloquium held at The Johns Hopkins University convened experts from the fields of both learning disabilities and giftedness to consider this issue.
At the time, interest in meeting the needs of gifted and talented students, as well as students with learning disabilities, was evident on many levels, but students who exhibited the characteristics of both exceptionalities had received scant notice. The participants agreed that students who are gifted and also have learning disabilities do, in fact, exist but are often overlooked when students are assessed for either giftedness or learning disabilities.
In recent years, the concept of giftedness and learning disabilities occurring concomitantly in the same individual has become commonly accepted. Several books have been written on the subject, numerous articles have appeared in journals, and most educational conferences focusing on either learning disabilities or giftedness include at least one presentation on the dual exceptionality.
We appear to have reached an understanding that high ability and learning problems can both be present in the same individual. Nonetheless, empirical research on the characteristics and needs of this population has been limited, and relatively few students with LD who are gifted are identified as such or given special services.
In this review, we examine some of the theoretical arguments, regulations, and educational practices that affect students with LD who are gifted. Who are these students? Students who are gifted and also have learning disabilities are those who possess an outstanding gift or talent and are capable of high performance, but who also have a learning disability that makes some aspect of academic achievement difficult.
Some of these students are identified and their needs are met. This happens only rarely, however, unless a school specifically decides to identify and then serve these students. The majority of students who are gifted with learning disabilities "fall through the cracks" in the system.
The first group includes students who have been identified as gifted yet exhibit difficulties in school. Their learning disabilities usually remain unrecognized for most of their educational lives. As school becomes more challenging, their academic difficulties may increase to the point where they are falling sufficiently behind peers that someone finally suspects a disability.
A second group includes students whose learning disabilities are severe enough that they have been identified as having learning disabilities but whose exceptional abilities have never been recognized or addressed. It has been suggested that this may be a larger group of students than many people realize.
If their potential remains unrecognized, it never becomes a cause for concern or the focus of their instructional program. Perhaps the largest group of unserved students are those whose abilities and disabilities mask each other; these children sit in general classrooms, ineligible for services provided for students who are gifted or have learning disabilities, and are considered to have average abilities.
Because these students typically function at grade level, they are not seen as having problems or special needs, nor are they a priority for schools on tight budgets. Although these students appear to be functioning reasonably well, they are, unfortunately, performing well below their potential.
As course work becomes more demanding in later years, and without the help they need to accommodate their limitations, their academic difficulties usually increase to the point where a learning disability may be suspected, but rarely is their true potential recognized.
For all three of these subgroups, the social and emotional consequences of having exceptional abilities and learning disabilities, when one or both of the conditions is unrecognized, can be pervasive and quite debilitating, as well as difficult to address if appropriate diagnosis and programming never take place or are delayed until adolescence Baum et al.
Siegel,even fewer students with high potential and learning disabilities will be recognized or fully served, resulting in a great waste of intellectual potential. Definitions The literature is replete with references to individuals with extremely high abilities and talents who also have a specific learning disability e.
Some researchers have even suggested that, at least for some individuals, the learning disability may be fundamentally associated with a "gift" e. To most practitioners who work with individuals with disabilities, being gifted and also having learning disabilities does not appear to be an unfamiliar or especially problematic condition, at least in theory.
Nonetheless, a number of thorny issues and debates make the understanding and identification of the condition difficult. Controversy surrounds what is meant by the terms gifted and learning disabled.
As Vaughn pointed out, "no two populations have suffered from more definitional problems than learning disabled and gifted" p. With regard to students who exhibit the dual exceptionalities simultaneously, legislation defining special populations has never specifically described this group.
When educators and researchers describe these students as a unique group, they generally talk about students who exhibit strengths in one area and weaknesses in another e. For a more formal definition, however, it has been necessary to rely on the separate prevailing definitions of gifted children and children with learning disabilities, which are almost always inadequate for accommodating students who exhibit the characteristics of both groups simultaneously.Find the right school for your gifted child.
We list the top gifted schools and programs in lausannecongress2018.com includes dedicated gifted schools, and schools with dedicated gifted classes, in-class accommodations, and accelerated lausannecongress2018.com on a school profile to learn . Terms such as socialization and social development are used interchangeably in the gifted education literature, but these actually are very different concepts.
Socialization is defined as adapting to the common needs of the social group (Webster, , p. ) or acquiring "the beliefs, behaviors, and values deemed significant and appropriate by other members of society" (Shaffer, , p.
2). But understanding and awareness are key, as "special" children often have special needs. As for me, today I am a "gifted" year-old woman: a wife, a writer, a mental health advocate and a mom.
Assessing Gifted Children, by Julia Osborn. What is the difference between testing and assessment of gifted children? Why do we need assessment? Topic Guide. Click topics below to expand and see lists of links and descriptions for each topic. The responsibility for the education system in Germany lies primarily with the states (Länder), while the federal government plays a minor lausannecongress2018.comal Kindergarten (nursery school) education is provided for all children between one and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory.
The system varies throughout Germany because each state (Land) decides its own educational policies.